Main send areas of need
At Sandwich Junior School we make provision for children with Special Educational Needs and/or Disability within each of the four categories defined in the 2015 SEND Code of Practice (para 6.28 - 6.35):
- Communication and Interaction
- Cognition and Learning
- Social, Emotional and Mental Health
- Sensory and/or Physical
Children with SEND may need extra help due to a range of different needs. The purpose of identifying the area of need(s) of the child is not to fit them into a category but rather to consider the child's needs as a whole and help ensure that the school can plan adequate provision. The categories of need are described as follows:
Communication and Interaction (C&I)
Children with speech, language and communication needs may have difficulty making sense of language or in communicating their needs and wants to others. Some children may need support developing fluency or forming sounds, words and sentences. They may also have difficulties in social situations as they do not understand the social rules of communication. These needs can change over time and a child may have difficulty with one, some or all of the different aspects of speech, language and social communication.
Children and young people with ASD, including Asperger's Syndrome and Autism, are likely to have particular difficulties with social interaction. They may also experience difficulties with language, communication and imagination, which can impact on how they relate to others.
Cognition and Learning (C&L)
Support for learning difficulties may be required when children and young people learn at a slower pace than their peers, even with appropriate differentiation. Learning difficulties cover a wide range of needs, including moderate learning difficulties (MLD) and severe learning difficulties (SLD), where children are likely to need support in some, or all areas of the curriculum and may have associated difficulties with mobility and communication. When children have profound and multiple learning difficulties (PMLD), they are likely to have severe and complex learning difficulties as well as a physical disability and sensory impairment. A child can also have a specific learning difficulty (SpLD) which may affect one area of their learning and encompasses a range of conditions, such as dyscalculia, dyslexia and dyspraxia.
Social, Emotional, Mental Health (SEMH)
Social, emotional and mental health needs can manifest in many different ways and can look different for all children. They could find managing their relationships with other people difficult and may display behaviour that can hinder theirs and other's learning that can negatively impact on their health, well-being and their quality of life. Some children may have disorders such as Attention, Deficit Disorder (ADD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), or attachment disorder.
Physical and Sensory
Some children and young people require special educational provision because they have a disability which prevents or hinders them from making use of the educational facilities generally provided. These difficulties can be age related and may fluctuate over time. Children may have a visual or hearing impairment or have a physical need for which they require additional ongoing support and equipment to ensure that lessons and learning opportunities are accessible.
It is not uncommon that children may have SEND that falls into one or more of the above categories.